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How to dark field blood analysis The Right Way

dark field blood analysis

What is CytoViva® Enhanced dark field blood analysis Optics

 

CytoViva’s enhanced darkfield microscope optics improve signal-to-noise up to ten times (10x) over standard darkfield optics1.  This enables nanomaterials as small as 10nm-20nm to be imaged right from your laboratory benchtop2.

CytoViva’s patented (US patents No. 7,542,203, 7,564,623) enhanced darkfield illumination system, which replaces the standard microscope condenser, works by coupling the source illumination directly to the condenser optics. In this optical path, collimating lenses and mirrors align and fix the geometry of the light to match the geometry of the condenser annulus. This creates a very narrow, oblique angle of source illumination that can be precisely focused into the sample but bypasses the objective. The result is very intense  scatter from nanoscale samples against a very dark background.  Source illumination compatible with this system can be halogen, xenon or even laser, depending on the application.

Enhanced Darkfield Illumination Optics

CytoViva’s enhanced darkfield optics enable scientists to optically observe a wide range of nanoscale materials quickly and easily in solution, live cells, tissue and materials based matrices. In addition, non-fluorescent live cells and pathogens can be easily observed at a level of detail not possible with traditional optical imaging techniques such as phase contrast or differential interference contrast.

Finally, when combined with CytoViva’s Hyperspectral Imaging capability this high signal-to-noise microscopy method enables researchers to spectrally characterize and map nanoscale samples in a wide range of environments.

To see just how easy CytoViva is to use, simply watch this brief video overview of the installation and alignment process.
Please email sales@CytoViva.com to request your private web demonstration.

dark field blood analysis

What PRINCIPLE of dark field blood analysis?

The compound microscope may be fitted with a dark field condenser that has a numerical aperture (resolving power) greater than the objective. The condenser also contains a dark-field stop. The compound microscope now becomes a dark-field microscope. Light passing through the specimen is diffracted and enters the objective lens, whereas undiffracted light does not, resulting in a bright image against a dark background. Objects are seen as light objects against a dark background.

dark field blood analysis

What does my scope need to do dark field blood analysis?

What does my scope need to do dark field blood analysis?

Most stereo and compound microscopes can do dark field blood analysis imaging. Check your microscope’s specifications to see if this is your case. If your microscope does not have a built-in condenser or stop, don’t worry, you can probably still use your microscope for dark field blood analysis imaging. You should be able to purchase an aftermarket condenser or even make your own stop. Read below to learn more about condensers and stops.

Condensers-In a dark field blood analysis set-up, an Abbe dark field blood analysis condenser is mounted below the microscope stage. This controls the light before it enters your specimen and objective. It’s made up of two uncorrected lenses and an iris diaphragm. The top lens of an Abbe dark field blood analysis condenser is concave, therefore the light emerging from this top lens forms an inverted hollow cone of light. Subsequently, only oblique light rays reach your specimen. If the numerical aperture of your condenser is greater than your objective these oblique light rays will cross and miss your objective making the background appear dark while reflecting and refracting off your specimen. You can adjust your condenser for optimal brightness, contrast, depth of field, etc two different ways:1) By moving it closer or further away from the specimen and stage, or 2) By opening or closing its iris or diaphragm.

Stops-Stops are opaque discs located just under the bottom lens of the substage condenser. When using stops, both the aperture and field diaphragms need to be opened wide to allow oblique rays to diffuse around the stop and reach your specimen. (Think solar eclipse, where the stop is the moon blocking the earth/specimen from direct light.)  You can purchase stops for almost any scope, or even make your own, by mounting a coin (or other opaque disc) on a clear glass disk.

When is dark field blood analysis good to use?

Dark field is useful when you would like to view unstained, transparent specimens. The best specimens for dark field blood analysis should have a refractive index that is close to the surroundings and otherwise difficult to image using conventional bright field microscopy. For example, many small aquatic organisms have refractive indices that are very similar to their surrounding water, making them ideal candidates for dark field blood analysis microscopy. Other ideal biological candidates include diatoms, small insects, unstained live bacteria, yeast, tissue culture cells, etc. Non-biological candidates include mineral and chemical crystals, and thin sections of polymers.

dark field blood analysis

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