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Surprising Insights About darkfield microscopes

darkfield microscopes

What is darkfield microscopes?

Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on oblique illumination to enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions. After the zeroth order (direct) light has been blocked by an opaque stop in the substage condenser, light passing through the specimen from oblique angles at all azimuths is diffracted, refracted, and reflected into the microscope objective to form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background.

Transmitted Darkfield Illumination – Transmitted darkfield illumination can be used to increase the visibility of specimens lacking sufficient contrast for satisfactory observation and imaging by ordinary brightfield microscopy techniques. This section discusses various aspects of darkfield illumination, including theory of the technique, condenser design for transmitted darkfield illumination (at both low and high magnifications), microscope configuration parameters, and suggestions for choosing suitable candidates for observation.

Reflected Darkfield Illumination – Darkfield illumination with reflected light enables visualization of grain boundaries, surface defects, and other features that are difficult or impossible to detect with brightfield illumination. The technique relies on an opaque occluding disk, which is placed in the path of the light traveling through the vertical illuminator so that only the peripheral rays of light reach the deflecting mirror. These rays are reflected by the mirror and pass through a hollow collar surrounding the objective to illuminate the specimen at highly oblique angles.

Darkfield Illumination for Stereomicroscopy – Darkfield observation in stereomicroscopy requires a specialized stand containing a reflection mirror and light-shielding plate to direct an inverted hollow cone of illumination towards the specimen at oblique angles. A number of aftermarket products are currently available for retrofitting stereomicroscopes with transmitted darkfield illumination. In addition, many of the microscope manufacturers offer illumination accessories that can be conveniently utilized to achieve darkfield conditions for their stereo systems. The principal elements of darkfield illumination are the same for both stereomicroscopes and more conventional compound microscopes.

Darkfield Microscope Configuration – A step-by-step guide to configuration of transmitted light microscopes for use with both low and high magnification darkfield condensers is provided in this review. Careful attention should always be given to microscope alignment and configuration, irrespective of whether the illumination mode is brightfield, darkfield, phase contrast or some other contrast enhancement technique. Time spent in this endeavor will be repaid in excellent performance of the microscope both for routine observation and critical digital imaging or photomicrography.

Troubleshooting darkfield microscopes – There are numerous common problems associated with darkfield microscopy and photomicrography or digital imaging. These range from insufficient illumination and condenser mis-alignment to using a field stop of incorrect size. Most darkfield illumination problems are associated with the substage condenser, and this should be the first suspect when things do not work properly. This section addresses some of the more common problems encountered with darkfield microscopy, along with suggested remedies.

Darkfield Photomicrograph Gallery – The Molecular Expressions gallery of darkfield illumination photomicrography and digital imaging contains a wide spectrum of images captured under a variety of conditions and utilizing many different specimens. Included in this unique gallery are specimens ranging from simple diatoms to fossilized dinosaur bones, insects, Moon rocks, and integrated circuits.

darkfield microscopes Interactive Tutorials – Explore various aspects of darkfield microscopy theory and practice using these tutorials, which are designed to complement text pages by enabling visitors to use a web browser to simulate configuration and operation of a microscope under darkfield illumination. Both the theory and practice of darkfield microscopy are addressed by the tutorials.

darkfield microscopes

What is darkfield microscopes Blood Analysis?

What is darkfield microscopes Blood Analysis?

You may find it difficult to locate many medical doctors that use this technique. The FDA does not approve of dark field microscopic blood analysis, therefore many doctor’s hands are tied. Viewing a fresh, natural blood sample (a sample not altered with any stains, etc., needed for normal microscopic exams), under the technology of a dark field microscope, will reveal conditions of your blood not normally even considered during the diagnosis of a normal blood test performed in doctor’s office or a lab.

However, an increasing number of health professionals have found that the use of this technique allows inspection of cellular dynamics which as noted above normally escape analysis or diagnosis using orthodox medical tests.

A dark field microscope is a microscope designed to permit diversion of light rays and illumination, from the side, so that details appear light against a dark background; as opposed to light passing straight through the specimen. If bright lights from the microscope pass directly through the specimen, the heat from the light source will kill the red blood cells (RBC)s faster. Also, by diverting the light rays, a greater amount of depth and details can be viewed. (Almost like a three-dimension view).

Dark Field Microscopy thus allows a health professional to evaluate the shapes and other properties of individual blood cells, indicating nutritional conditions which can be adversely affecting a person’s health. The advantage of this analysis over standard blood tests, which detect chemical changes in the blood, is the ability of dark field microscopy to detect nutritional disorders sooner, when the problem is in its infancy stages. By monitoring the blood’s condition, a health professional can assist in “balancing” the blood by giving dietary and lifestyle recommendations which can enhance health.

This microscopic photograph of healthy, powerful blood shows the red blood cells to be round, evenly shaped and freely floating in plasma. The plasma itself is clear with a few fat globules. There are no signs of clotting, bacteria, fungus, disease or stress. This is the kind of blood a healthy person should have flowing through their circulatory system

In darkfield microscopy, one is therefore able to observe “live blood.” Unlike the techniques of electron microscopy, no fixative is used so the picture is one of mobility rather than fixity. With stains and fixatives, the picture reveals a moment in time rather than a continuum.

What one sees in the mobile situation are the usual red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma—and what is floating in the plasma. Microbial activity, undigested food, fungi, and crystals are all apparent as is the capacity of the red blood cells to circulate and the white blood cells to devour morbid matter.

As we know, red blood cells transport oxygen to the tissues of the body. Without oxygen, we are devitalized, and according to some theories, the tissues go into a morbid state in which they can survive on fermentation rather than oxygenation. This is what is referred to as anaerobic and it is believed, by such persons as Nobel laureate Prof. Otto Warburg, that cancer thrives in such oxygen deficient conditions.

With darkfield microscopy, one often sees sees a condition called “rouleau” in which the red blood cells are stacked together as shown below. Some people believe it is because of the stress on the body of poor metabolism and others believe it is due to this as well as pH (acid-alkaline balance), wrong dietary choices or the presence of excessively high levels of free radicals. In any event, it is usually correctable.

Another condition that is often revealed in these tests is one in which the activity of red blood cells is compromised because of infection, bacterial or viral. In some cases, the red blood cells are misshapen or debilitated by parasitic invasion.

In the photograph above, the “rouleau” effect shows that the red blood cells are clumped together and stacked like coins. Rouleau affects proper oxygenation because the red blood cells do not circulate well enough to deliver oxygen where it is needed.

The condition also favors the growth of unhealthy organisms that can survive in a milieu that is less oxygen rich. Fungi, bacteria, and viruses require less oxygen than healthy tissue.

In the case of rouleau, since oxygenation is really critical to well being, the right diet and herbs may alleviate one of the underlying factors that contributes to cancer. However, enzymes, avoidance of the wrong foods, and protocols that address the specific issues of the patient would be expected to be more effective than more random efforts to ward off ill health.

For instance, one may or may not be iron deficient, but one may have room for improvement in diet and digestion as well as perhaps liver and immune function. Detoxification and decongestion can also be helpful.

Typically, a detoxifying herb will also be decongesting and sometimes also somewhat anti-parasitic, but not all herbal alkaloids are the same and not all formulae have the same actions. Therefore consultation with a practitioner who is knowledgeable in the areas that are pertinent is practical and, more importantly, often wise!

If the real problem is infection—and devitalization or cancer are secondary to infection—it is important to address the infection so that the red blood cells can “get back to their primary task,” which, of course, is to deliver oxygen to the tissues.

The idea that cancer is a disease of degeneration has had its fashionable phases and its days of rejection. The issue of whether an abnormal condition could perpetuate itself in a healthy internal environment, what is called “biological terrain” in the literature, is also debated but not resolved.

darkfield microscopes

What is darkfield microscopes?

Darkfield microscopy is a special form of microscopy in which the light beam is split in such a way that the edges of objects in the samples are illuminated so that they appear as silhouettes against a dark background — as opposed to brightfield microscopy which allows the examination of specimens against an illuminated field — and which washes out the tiny and faint objects that can be seen only in darkfield. The second major difference between darkfield and other forms of microscopy is that darkfield can be used to view wet samples, including live blood and other liquids or apparently liquid substances.

Because of the differences in illumination, there are many features in samples that are only viewable in darkfield and never seen in other kinds of microscopy. It is probably for this reason that some of the findings of darkfield microscopists are rejected by those who also examine slides but never see the objects reported by darkfield specialists.

Darkfield microscopy is not new. However, to put everything in context, it might be worth noting that magnification of objects has fascinated and challenged many careful observers for countless centuries. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) is generally credited with the invention of the microscope, but it took his successors 150 years to match the quality Leeuwenhoek had managed with much simpler optics.

Likewise, Royal Raymond Rife’s microscopes of more than half a century ago remain unrivaled today, this despite the advent of fiber optic illumination and other advances that, all other things equal, should have furthered the development of improved microscopes.

Points to Understand

The splitting of the light beam is achieved by blocking the light from coming up straight through the condenser. This little obstacle causes the light to refract and appear to come from the edges. Because darkfield permits the observer to see liquid samples, no stains are required and the objects in the sample may live for many days following removal from their source. So, in addition to being able to see objects that are not visible in brightfield, darkfield microscopy facilitates the study of behavioral patterns that cannot be observed with stained or fixed specimens.

Since what we understand is often as not based on what we see, it goes without saying that opinions about blood, immunity, germs, and illness can be permanently transformed after only a few hours of darkfield viewing.

The ramifications of this statement are so vast that it will probably be wise to allow the understanding and appreciation of darkfield microscopy a little time to unfold and mature. However, before doing so, let me simply make a couple of comments:

The idea that blood is sterile is based on the inability to see what is floating between the “recognized” blood components such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
An entire century of medicine was based on theories of germs and germ transmission that are tied to observations that are limited and possibly dubious.

darkfield microscopes

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