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What Is dark field microscopy blood and How Does dark field microscopy blood

What you can expect from dark field microscopy blood Analysis?

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

Thus, the dark field microscopy blood analysis provides information about the function and structure of blood cells and plasma endobionts, as well as developing bacterial and fungal precursors. The dark field examination also indicates changes within the cell through hormonal and mineral deficiencies. It is particularly beneficial for the evaluation of patients with chronic diseases, and children with susceptibility to infection, or recurrent bacterial problems, such as Candida or other fungal diseases. dark field microscopy blood analysis is crucial in answering questions related to any chronic, or toxic problems.

Dark field microscopy is also an important tool in biological therapies. It can be used to test the effect of certain medications, by adding the medication to a blood sample and analyzing the reaction that is produced. This investigation is extremely motivating for the patient, by allowing him to directly experience the diagnosis.

The effects of dark field microscopy can not be replaced by any other blood test, especially not by normal laboratory microscopic blood tests, sent in fixed samples, as the blood changes its function due to environmental changes, so the blood must be tested while it is still fresh. It is also important to evaluate the degeneration tendency of blood samples, especially when considering the behavior of tumors.

The presence of bacteria precursors, which are not disease-inducing, but increase the risk of future disease development, can also be found in the dark field examination. Therefore, this dark field examination of the blood is a valuable and necessary preventative measure.

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What is Blood and What Does it Do

Two types of blood vessels carry blood throughout our bodies: The arteries carry oxygenated blood (blood that has received oxygen from the lungs) from the heart to the rest of the body.

The blood then travels through the veins back to the heart and lungs, where it receives more oxygen. As the heart beats, you can feel blood traveling through the body at your pulse points – like the neck and the wrist – where large, blood-filled arteries run close to the surface of the skin.

The blood that flows through this network of veins and arteries is called whole blood. Whole blood contains three types of blood cells:

Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Platelets

These blood cells are mostly manufactured in the bone marrow (the soft tissue inside our bones), especially in the bone marrow of the vertebrae (the bones that make up the spine), ribs, pelvis, skull, and sternum (breastbone). These cells travel through the circulatory system suspended in a yellowish fluid called plasma (pronounced: plaz-muh). Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood is a mixture of blood cells and plasma.
Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called erythrocytes, pronounced: ih-rith-ruh-sytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. Red blood cells contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin (pronounced: hee-muh-glow-bun). Blood gets its bright red color when the hemoglobin in RBCs picks up oxygen in the lungs. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues. The body contains more RBCs than any other type of cell, and each has a life span of about 4 months. Each day, the body produces new RBCs to replace those that die or are lost from the body.

White Blood Cells

White blood cells (WBCs, and also called leukocytes, pronounced: loo-kuh-sytes) are a key part of the body’s system for defending itself against infection. They can move in and out of the bloodstream to reach affected tissues. The blood contains far fewer white blood cells than red cells, although the body can increase production of WBCs to fight infection. There are several types of white blood cells, and their life spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow.

Several different parts of blood are involved in fighting infection. White blood cells called granulocytes (pronounced: gran-yuh-low-sytes) and lymphocytes (pronounced: lim-fuh-sytes) travel along the walls of blood vessels. They fight germs such as bacteria and viruses and may also attempt to destroy cells that have become infected or have changed into cancer cells.

Certain types of WBCs produce antibodies, special proteins that recognize foreign materials and help the body destroy or neutralize them. Someone with an infection will often have a higher white cell count than when he or she is well because more WBCs are being produced or are entering the bloodstream to battle the infection. After the body has been challenged by some infections, lymphocytes “remember” how to make the specific antibodies that will quickly attack the same germ if it enters the body again.
Platelets

Platelets (also called thrombocytes, pronounced: throm-buh-sytes) are tiny oval-shaped cells made in the bone marrow. They help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells.

Drop of Blood

Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors, which are critical to the clotting process. Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action of clotting factors is needed to produce a strong, stable clot.

Platelets and clotting factors work together to form solid lumps to seal leaks, wounds, cuts, and scratches and to prevent bleeding inside and on the surfaces of our bodies. The process of clotting is like a puzzle with interlocking parts. When the last part is in place, the clot happens – but if only one piece is missing, the final pieces can’t come together.

When large blood vessels are severed (or cut), the body may not be able to repair itself through clotting alone. In these cases, dressings or stitches are used to help control bleeding.

In addition to the cells and clotting factors, blood contains other important substances, such as nutrients from the food that has been processed by the digestive system. Blood also carries hormones released by the endocrine glands and carries them to the body parts that need them.

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

How darkfield microscopy work?

Microscopes are used to magnify objects. Through magnification, an image is made to appear larger than the original object. The magnification of an object can be calculated roughly by multiplying the magnification of the objective lens times the magnification of the ocular lens. Objects are magnified to be able to see small details. There is no limit to the magnification that can be achieved; however, there is a magnification beyond which detail does not become clearer. The result is called empty magnification when objects are made bigger but their details do not become clearer. Therefore, not only magnification but resolution is important to the quality of the information in an image.

The resolving power of the microscope is defined as the ability to distinguish two points apart from each other. The resolution of a microscope is dependent on a number of factors in its construction. There is also an inherent theoretical limit to resolution imposed by the wavelength of visible light (400-600nm). The theoretical limit of resolution (the smallest distance able to be seen between two points) is calculated as:

Resolution = 0.61 l/N.A.

where l represents the wavelength of light used and N.A.is the numerical aperture. The student-grade microscopes generally have much lower resolution than the theoretical limit because of lower quality lenses and illumination systems.

Standard brightfield microscopy relies upon light from the lamp source being gathered by the substage condenser and shaped into a cone whose apex is focused at the plane of the specimen. Specimens are seen because of their ability to change the speed and the path of the light passing through them. This ability is dependent upon the refractive index and the opacity of the specimen. To see a specimen in a brightfield microscope, the light rays passing through it must be changed sufficiently to be able to interfere with each other which produces contrast (differences in light intensities) and, thereby, build an image. If the specimen has a refractive index too similar to the surrounding medium between the microscope stage and the objective lens, it will not be seen. To visualize biological materials well, the materials must have this inherent contrast caused by the proper refractive indices or be artificially stained. These limitations require instructors to find naturally high contrast materials or to enhance contrast by staining them which often requires killing them. Adequately visualizing transparent living materials or thin unstained specimens is not possible with a brightfield microscope.

Darkfield microscopy relies on a different illumination system. Rather than illuminating the sample with a filled cone of light, the condenser is designed to form a hollow cone of light. The light at the apex of the cone is focused at the plane of the specimen; as this light moves past the specimen plane it spreads again into a hollow cone. The objective lens sits in the dark hollow of this cone; although the light travels around and past the objective lens, no rays enter it (Fig. 1). The entire field appears dark when there is no sample on the microscope stage; thus the name darkfield microscopy. When a sample is on the stage, the light at the apex of the cone strikes it. The image is made only by those rays scattered by the sample and captured in the objective lens (note the rays scattered by the specimen in Figure 1). The image appears bright against the dark background. This situation can be compared to the glittery appearance of dust particles in a dark room illuminated by strong shafts of light coming in through a side window. The dust particles are very small, but are easily seen when they scatter the light rays. This is the working principle of darkfield microscopy and explains how the image of low contrast material is created: an object will be seen against a dark background if it scatters light which is captured with the proper device such as an objective lens.

The highest quality darkfield microscopes are equipped with specialized costly condensers constructed only for darkfield application. This darkfield effect can be achieved in a brightfield microscope, however, by the addition of a simple “stop”. The stop is a piece of opaque material placed below the substage condenser; it blocks out the center of the beam of light coming from the base of the microscope and forms the hollow cone of light needed for darkfield illumination.

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy blood

dark field microscopy uses

dark field microscopy uses

dark field microscopy uses

dark field microscopy uses

Dark field microscopy APPLICATIONS

• Viewing blood cells (biological dark field microscope, combined with phase contrast)
• Viewing bacteria (biological dark field microscope, often combined with phase contrast)
• Viewing different types of algae (biological dark field microscope)
• Viewing hairline metal fractures (metallurgical dark field microscope)
• Viewing diamonds and other precious stones (gemological microscope or stereo dark field microscope)
• Viewing shrimp or other invertebrates (stereo dark field microscope)

 

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